The Ohio Country and the War It Would Bring

The year was 1700, and three of the most powerful empires of Europe were laying claim to North America. This was an ongoing product since the discovery of the new world in the 1400’s when both of the Americas were being claimed. But 1700 seems to be the peak of control of America by England, Spain and France. Spain declared much of Mexico, Florida, and the Southwestern and Pacific regions of the North America calling it New Spain. To the north, France declared Canada, Acadia, Newfoundland and Louisiana. This was known as New France and the boundaries included the Hudson Bay of New York to the Gulf of Mexico and areas west to the Rockies. England claimed much of the eastern coast to the Appalachian Mountains. 1

In July 1701, a war erupted known as the War of the Spanish Succession and continues until 1712. In 1713, the Treaty of Utrecht is signed by several European countries including France, Spain and Britain. In this treaty, France ceded some land around the Hudson Bay and Newfoundland to Britain. However, there was one provision in that treaty where the Iroquois Confederacy in the Ohio Country was considered as British subjects. This also included the land that the Iroquois Confederacy occupied. 2

In 1722, the Treaty of Albany was signed and the Ohio Country was coming to center. This treaty was between several Indian tribes and colonies of New York, Pennsylvania and Virginia which would limit the French influence from the Mississippi Valley and Canada. But in the 1744, the Treaty of Lancaster was signed after a dispute between colonial settlers settling on lands that belonged to the Iroquois and some blood was spilled. The Treaty of Lancaster gave Britain full rights to the Ohio Country, but this too would cause tensions with the Iroquois. Although, the Iroquois felt that this only gave the colony of Virginia the rights to the Shenandoah Valley and not the Ohio Country. 3

In 1747, the Indians took their case against the French, who to them were invading the Ohio Country, accessing the Mississippi Valley. The result was the 1747 Treaty of Philadelphia and the second Treaty of Lancaster of 1748. Tensions of trade were almost at the boiling point between the colonies and the Indians. The 1748 treaty would help to settle and allow trade with all parties in the “Chain of Friendship.” 4

In 1748, the Ohio Company was formed by Thomas Lee and brothers Lawrence and Augustine Washington, as a land investment company. This company would try to block any attempt by France to settle the land of the Ohio Country. It was also to represent Virginia’s interests in the Ohio Country for settlements and trading. The land investments included some of Virginia’s wealthy planters and political leaders including Lieutenant Governor Robert Dinwiddie, Thomas Cresap, John Mercer and his oldest son George Mercer. 5

A year after the Ohio Company was founded, George Mercer petitioned King George for England to begin allowing settlements on the land. England agreed and in 1749, a grant in two parts allowed for 500,000 acres of land for settlement over a two year period. 300,000 acres of that 500,000 were granted to the Ohio Company. With settlements came protection and Virginia was required to build a fortification at their expense. 6

The Ohio Company employed Thomas Cresap who owned a trading post near Wills Creek in Maryland. He was hired to blaze a road over the Allegheny Mountain to the Monongahela River. The Ohio Company also hired Christopher Gist to survey key areas of the Ohio Country where settlements could be made. During the years between 1750-1753, both men blazed and surveyed the land as requested by the Ohio Company. Thomas Cresap used an ancient Indian Trail known as the Nemacolin’s Trail to transverse the mountains. The land that Gist surveyed for settlement consisted of modern day West Virginia and western Pennsylvania. 7

One key feature of this new land for settlement was an area called the forks. This is where the rivers of the Allegheny and Monongahela came together and formed the Ohio River, shaped much like the letter “Y” with a small natural island forming the tip in between where the two rivers meet. The Ohio River connects to the Mississippi River near modern day Cairo, Illinois. From there, the Mississippi River flows to the south to modern day Louisiana where it flows directly into the Gulf of Mexico. Whoever controlled this point and the rivers connected to it, ultimately controlled North America. 8

This area was thought to be part of the land grant that was ceded by the King to Lt. Governor Dinwiddie for the Ohio Company. However, this area was also claimed by the colony of Pennsylvania or at least that is what Pennsylvania’s officials thought. At the same time, the French were trying to lay their own claims to it by simply occupying parts of the Ohio Country. 9

Beginning in 1753, the French under Paul Marin de la Malgue were ordered into the Ohio Country and build a series of forts to protect their King’s interests. He was given command of 2,000 French Marines and Indians and move to the south shore of Lake Erie and built a fortification. From there, he was to construct a road to the head waters of the Allegheny River. Reaching that point, he was to build a series of forts along the river leading down to the Forks of the Ohio. 10

Paul Malgue was selected by Governor Michel-Ange Du Quesne de Menneville to lead this expedition into the Ohio Country. By the summer, the first fort was built called Fort Presque Isle. Fifteen miles to further to the south along French Creek was Fort Le Boeuf. Construction of Fort Le Boeuf began in July and on October 29, Malgue passed away while at Fort Le Boef. By December Jacques Legardeur de Saint-Pierre was the fort’s commander. 11

In December, Major George Washington who had been tasked with meeting with the French officials at Fort Le Boef, hand delivered an ultimatum regarding their encroachment on land claimed by the Ohio Company. There, he noticed many canoes which meant one thing. The French were planning on moving southward by Spring. The French response to Lt. Governor Dinwiddie was to take his case to Quebec City, the capital of New France. 12

By 1754, a few months after George Washington met Saint-Pierre with Lt. Governor Dinwiddie’s ultimatum, the French began finishing the building Fort Machault where French Creek meets the Allegheny River. By April Captain Chabert de Joncaire was finished with its construction. This was the last stop for supplies headed to the Forks of the Ohio. 13

While the French were moving south with their chain of forts, Lt. Governor Dinwiddie, in January ordered the construction of a fort near or at the Forks of the Ohio to protect the investment of the Ohio Company. William Trent had purchased land and operated a trading post with his partner George Croghan. When the Virginia Militia recruited manpower, William Trent was given the rank of captain. 14

By February, Captain Trent and his company of Virginia militia were in process of building Fort Prince George. In April, during the building of Fort Prince George, French Captain Claude-Pierre Pécaudy de Contrecœur appeared with his force. Captain Trent was away on business at Wills Creek meeting with his second in command Lieutenant John Fraser. This left Ensign Edward Ward in command of the fort and he was forced to surrender it to the French on April 18. From that point the French took possession of the Forks of the Ohio. War would soon follow by England and the Colonies that also laid claim to the Forks. 15

Citations
  1. Wikipedia basic definitions of New Spain, New France and British America.
  2. The Treaty of Utrecht: http://www.heraldica.org/topics/france/utrecht.htm
  3. Treaty of Albany 1722: http://earlytreaties.unl.edu/treaty.00001.html and the text of the Treaty of Lancaster is found here. https://archive.org/stream/jstor-4242734/4242734_djvu.txt
  4. Treaty of Philadelphia: http://digital.library.pitt.edu/cgi-bin/t/text/pageviewer-idx?sort=title;c=darltext;cc=darltext;type=simple;q1=Indians%20of%20North%20America–Treaties.;rgn=subject;view=image;seq=0001;idno=31735054857614;didno=31735054857614 The Treaty of Lancaster 1748: http://www.virginiaplaces.org/settleland/graphics/1748lancaster2.pdf
  5. The formation of the Ohio Company: http://digital.library.pitt.edu/cgi-bin/t/text/pageviewer-idx?c=pittpress;cc=pittpress;idno=31735057893798;rgn=full%20text;didno=31735057893798;view=image;seq=29;node=31735057893798%3A1.6;page=root;size=s;frm=frameset;
  6. Ibid
  7. Ibid
  8. Papers of the Ohio Company: http://digital.library.pitt.edu/cgi-bin/f/findaid/findaid-idx?c=ascead;cc=ascead;q1=ohio%20company;rgn=main;view=text;didno=US-PPiU-dar192502
  9. Ibid
  10. Canadian Dictionary: http://www.biographi.ca/en/bio/marin_de_la_malgue_paul_3E.html
  11. Ibid, http://www.biographi.ca/en/bio/duquesne_de_menneville_ange_4E.html
  12. Stotz, Charles Morse (2005). Outposts Of The War For Empire: The French And English In Western Pennsylvania: Their Armies, Their Forts, Their People 1749-1764. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.
  13. Journal of George Washington: http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1033&context=etas
  14. Ibid, Canadian dictionary: http://www.biographi.ca/en/bio.php?id_nbr=2131, Kenneth P. Bailey, The Ohio Company of Virginia and the Westward Movement, 1748-1792: A Chapter in the History of the Colonial Frontier (Glendale, CA: The Arthur H. Clark Company), 1939.

Terror On The Monongahela, Part Two

As the British marched, Captain Beaujeu was trying to determine the location of the British. By 1:00 p.m., the French, Canadian and Indians had found the British. Captain Beaujeu was taken off guard as he was moving headlong toward them. He began signaling his command and the Indians to move right and left, quickly trying to get his men into position.  Many of the Indians took position in several ravines, while the rest of the French force moved into a position that took the shape of a half moon.

Royal Engineer Harry Gordon, who was at the head of Lt. Col. Gage’s vanguard, thought he saw something moving in the woods. He thought he had seen a figure of a French officer moving back and forth in between the trees. One man became five, five men became 15, and finally he saw hundreds of Indians. About 300 of them came into view. Royal Engineer Gordon fell back to report his sighting to Lt. Col. Gage.  At first Lt. Col. Gage wanted to pass it off, but the fear in Engineer Gordon’s eyes expressed the gravity of the situation.

Before Lt. Col. Gage had time to size up the situation, one of his line officers ordered his detachment of twenty Grenadiers to “Right about.” The men had little direction as to what the officer saw. Lieutenant Colonel Gage quickly gave orders for his command to fix bayonets. Lieutenant Colonel Gage sent word back to bring the two 6-pounders up and deploy in front of Maj. St.Clair’s workers.

Thomas_Gage
Thomas Gage

Lieutenant Colonel Gage formed up his battle line and moved forward. At the same time, the French and Canadians were moving directly toward the British advance. The British moved to the eastern slope of a ravine that ran parallel. The French thought the British had higher ground. Seeing this, the French Marines opened fire. The shots did no damage, missing their targets as the British were out of range of the French guns.

The opening French volley forced the British advance to hesitate, but Lt. Col. Gage quickly restored order in the ranks. The British fired a massive first volley back at the French Marines and Canadian Militia. Targets were not as easily seen, but the British first and second volley stunned the Canadian Militia. Half of their command fell back and began giving ground.

The British Grenadiers were soon supported by the two 6-pounder cannon. The guns were deployed in front of Maj. St.Clair and poured deadly case shot into the woods, wounding several French soldiers. The French, Canadians, and Indians saw first hand the destruction caused by the British artillery. The woods were splintered. If the French were to gain the day, the artillery needed to be silenced.

Within minutes of the fight, the French and Canadian Militia lost almost half of their number. Many fell back from the battlefield, leaving 150 men to resist the British. Then the British fired a third volley in which Captain Beaujeu fell dead. The command fell to Captain Jean Daniel Dumas. It looked as if the British were winning the battle.

While Lt. Col. Gage was hotly engaged, the Indians were just getting into position. No sooner had the British opened fire when Maj. Gen. Braddock heard sounds of battle in his front. Once the sounds did not die down, he ordered an aide to ride to the front and report back to him the situation. But Maj. Gen. Braddock went ahead and rode forward one quarter of a mile to see for himself what was going on. At this time, the Indians attack, hitting their flanks. Their half moon formation would begin reaping the British.

The Indians began picking off the British cannoneers and those officers mounted on horses. When the battle opened, Maj. St.Clair formed his men, ready to move forward to action. At the same time, Lt. Col. Gage was trying to restore order among his lines. As the Indians attacked the flanks, many of those men came running and collided with the vanguard column. With so much gunfire and screaming, the British began getting disorganized, creating disorder in the ranks. With the flankers running wildly to the main column of the vanguard, several were subjected to friendly fire.

Lieutenant Colonel Gage later noted that the French and their Indian allies took advantage of the landscape, and fired with much success as most of the officers were killed or wounded, as were many of the men. The British soldiers began retreating and were halted. Within fifteen minutes of the first shots, many of the vanguard were killed or wounded. The Indians and the French poured deadly fire into the British. The flankers and the vanguard were intertwined with those of the vanguard.

Lieutenant Colonel Gage ordered men to take the higher ground, but all refused the order. The men stood in the middle of the road and fired in every direction. Due to the lack of reinforcements, the British flankers retreated off the hill. The Indians had taken to higher ground on Lt. Col. Gage’s right flank, where the French and Indians gained this vantage point and poured heavy fire down upon the British.

As Lt. Col. Gage tried restoring order, he lost control of the situation when the Indians began overriding his position. The Indians moved quick and they moved fast as they came toward the British. This forced what was left of Lt. Col. Gage’s command to retreat, colliding with Maj. St. Clair’s command as they began arriving and being attacked.

Lieutenant Colonel Gage’s command lost 57 men killed and wounded out of 70 from the Grenadier company of the 44th Regiment. The 48th Regiment Grenadier company suffered heavily too. They lost 67 men who were killed or wounded out of 78 total. Of 18 officers, only three remained. The rest were mostly killed. The two 6-pounders would fire upwards to a total of 100 rounds of ammunition during this phase of the battle.

During the opening phase of the attack, Maj. St. Clair formed up his men. Within a few minutes, Lt. Col. Gage’s advance begun falling back to Maj. St. Clair’s position. Major St. Clair moved ahead to the front to see first hand what the situation had produced. By that time, the Indians began attacking his column. Many of his Virginia rangers under Captain Waggoner began hunkering down behind trees and rocks and fighting back. They were looking for a fight, while at the same time, Captain Polson’s Virginian carpenters were shot to pieces within minutes. As Maj. St. Clair rode forward he was shot through the right lung, which broke his collarbone and skimmed his right shoulder blade.

After Maj. St.Clair was wounded, he rode back to his own line and gave orders to his men to protect the artillery. He then went to find Maj. Gen. Braddock. Major General Braddock had taken off to see what lie ahead. He was at the head with the heavier artillery. Upon seeing Maj. Gen. Braddock, Maj. St.Clair yelled “For God-sake” move to the right and take the higher ground or the Indians will totally surround them. By that point, Maj. St.Clair fell, passing out due to the lack of blood which poured from his wound.

The soldiers were half stupified
Major General Edward Braddock

Major General Braddock, with Captain Stewart’s Virginian horsemen, and the general’s staff, including Colonel George Washington rode forward. Major General Braddock was stunned at the situation.  His army was in total disorder. The scene was wild, chaos and fear had gripped his men in the front. Lieutenant Colonel Gage’s and Maj. St.Clair’s detachments were intermixed.

Major General Braddock quickly ordered Colonel Halket to secure the wagon and artillery trains. Colonel Halket had to bring up the trains and close their order, and he would remain with the wagons. At the same time, Maj. Gen. Braddock ordered Lieutenant Colonel Ralph Burton and the troops guarding in columns on both sides of the wagon trains to move forward. About 500 soldiers rushed forward about twenty minutes after the first shot opened the battle.

Lieutenant Colonel Burton moved the infantry ahead to where Lt. Col. Gage’s position was facing them, to the right overlooking the higher ground. There, three 12-pounder cannon deployed to their left to protect the rear of Lt. Col. Burton. The three 12-pounder cannon under the command of Captain Thomas Ord opened fire on the Indians, holding them back for a few moments. Major General Braddock ordered Captain Ord to clear the brush with his 12-pounders in an effort to try to open the area and remove any concealment away. The British Royal Artillery were supported by Lieutenant Charles Spendelow’s sailors. Within a few hours, these guns fire almost one hundred rounds of ammunition.

Major General Braddock order Lt. Col. Burton to take the rising hill on his right. This was the same hill that Maj. St.Clair warned Maj. Gen. Braddock about. As they moved, the commands of Lt. Col. Gage and Maj. St.Clair collided with the newly arriving reinforcements. As Lt. Col. Burton’s column began to wheel in the middle of the twelve foot wide road and form a battle line, they became entangled with hundreds of men. The harder Lt. Col. Burton’s command pushed forward, the commands of Lt. Col. Gage and St. Clair pushed back even harder. To make matters worse, the two 6-pounder cannon had ran out of ammunition and were soon abandoned and captured. The gunners ran and fled from the scene. Major General Braddock would order a charge up the hill to recapture their 6-pounder cannon, but no soldier dared to leave the road.

Resources:

Crocker, Thomas E. Braddock’s March, Westholme Publishing, Yardley, PA, 2009.

Hall, Charles (editor). Gen. Braddock’s Defeat, Fort Edwards Foundation, Capoon Bridge, WV, 2005.

Netherton, Ross. Braddock’s Campaign and the Potomac Route to the West, Higher Ed. Publishers, Falls Chruch, VA. 1997.

Kopperman, Paul E. Braddock at the Monongahela, University of Pittsburgh Press, Pittsburgh, PA. 1977.

McCardell, Lee. Ill-starred General, University of Pittsburgh Press, Pittsburgh, PA. 1958.

Wahll, Andrew J. Braddock Road Chronicles 1755, Heritage Books, Westminster, MD. 2006.

Parkman, Francis. Braddock’s Defeat, 1755, The French and English in America, Maynard, New York, NY, 1890

Preston, David. Braddock’s Defeat, Oxford University, Oxford NY. 2015.