200th Anniversary of the Battle of Baltimore

coloredAfter the news of the burning of Washington, the 45,000 people of Baltimore knew it was only a matter of time before they too, would see the British ships in the Chesapeake Bay. Baltimore was the third largest city in the United States during that time. It was also a place where privateers captured or collected bounty from over five hundred British ships, as well as fanned the war with Britain.

Since 1813, Baltimore had already built up their defenses for a possible British raid. The city officials called upon Major General Samuel Smith, commanding the Maryland Militia Third Division to defend the city. Aside from the Maryland militia, Major George Armistead commanded the Fort McHenry garrison. There was also a naval presence at Baltimore too.

On August 27, 1814, Major General Smith ordered Brigadier General Stansbury’s militia to Baltimore, but due to the fighting at Bladensburg, his brigade was still scattered. Major General Smith had decided that Baltimore will not end up as another “Bladensburg Race.” The citizens were told to find and gather any tools, such as pickaxes, shovels and wheel barrels. The next day, all people would begin digging or improving entrenchments.

Militia from Virginia and Pennsylvania also reported to Baltimore. Major General Smith began to look at the area of what might become a battleground. He became interested in North Point Peninsula. It was here, at the tip, where the Patapsco River emptied into the Chesapeake Bay. It was a perfect place for the British to land their ground forces. Major General Smith would send Brigadier General John Stricker to deploy his command there, and buy as much as time as he could to stall the British advance.

As Maj. Gen. Smith made his plan, he was given more authority, including commanding all forces in Baltimore over Federal Brigadier General William Winder. This made Brig. Gen. Winder very upset. On September 5, Brig. Gen. Winder received his orders defending Ferry Branch. Brigadier General Winder kept pleading to Maj. Gen. Smith about changing his orders, but Smith ignored him, as he had a city to defend.

On September 10, the British navy moved down the Potomac River where they concentrated on the Chesapeake Bay. From there, they began sailing to Baltimore. By this time, Maj. Gen. Smith had about 10,000 troops, mostly militia, to defend the city.

On September 11, signal guns fired announcing the arrival of the British. Vice Admiral Alexander Cochrane made plans to attack Baltimore using a two prong attack. He was unaware that Baltimore was waiting for the British to arrive. He ordered Major General Robert Ross and Rear Admiral George Cockburn to advance on the city by way of North Point, while the British navy continued by sea to Baltimore, and attack Fort McHenry.

On September 12, at 4:00 a.m., the British ground forces were on American soil. By dawn, 4,700 soldiers, marines, and sailors began their advance on Baltimore, twelve miles away. Later in the morning, Brigadier General John Stricker discovered the British advance. He readied his men for the battle ahead. But after a few hours had passed, Brig. Gen. Stricker decided to force Maj. Gen. Ross’ hand, and draw him into a fight. By 1:30 p.m., the first shots were exchanged by the men of Ross’ and Stricker’s commands.

The wounding of Maj. Gen. Ross. He would die from his wounds suffered at North Point.

The wounding of Maj. Gen. Ross. He would die from his wounds suffered at North Point.

Major General Ross quickly ordered up two of his regiments to the front. As the British infantry arrived with Maj. Gen. Ross at the head, a bullet stuck his right arm and went into his chest. At the same time, Maj. Gen. Stricker’s skirmish line fell back to the main line. British Colonel Arthur Brooke took over for the fallen Ross, and within an hour, advanced on Brig. Gen. Stricker’s main line. As two British infantry regiments charged the center of the main line, and after twenty minutes of heavy fighting, Stricker’s men fell back. Stricker lost 163 men killed or wounded and another 50 taken prisoner. For the British, the battle of North Point wasn’t as costly in numbers, but they lost Major General Robert Ross, as he died later from his wounds. For those at Baltimore, the battle of North Point bought them time to finish their defenses.

At dawn on September 13, British Colonel Brooke began his advance on Baltimore. As the British approached Hampstead Hill, they were faced with an earthwork that was about three miles wide. The interior featured one hundred cannon and about ten to fifteen thousand troops, all ready to defend the eastern approach to Baltimore. The rain fell upon Colonel Brooke’s men. Colonel Brooke attacked the position on the right, which he was able to overrun, but he knew a frontal assault would be devastating to his rank and file. After meeting with his officers, Colonel Brooke decided to withdraw before dawn the next morning.

While Colonel Brooke was advancing toward Baltimore, British Vice Admiral Cochrane, with about nineteen ships, began testing the defenses of Fort McHenry. At about 6:00 a.m. Congreve Rockets and mortar shells began screaming and flying through the air. The British ships were just out of range of fort’s guns. The one thousand man garrison under Major Armistead would have to wait for the British ships to move in closer before they would return the fire. For the next twenty-five hours the British bombarded Fort McHenry.

Francis Scott Key had been aboard the British vessel HMS Tonnant. He met with British commanders and the Prisoner Exchange Officer Colonel John Stuart Skinner to help release Dr. William Beanes, who had been arrested after the Burning of Washington. The British agreed to let them go, but they would have wait until after the battle of Baltimore was decided to be released. During the night, Key watched the “the rockets’ red glare, the bombs bursting in air” as the rain fell.

The bombardment of Fort McHenry.

The bombardment of Fort McHenry.

During the night’s bombardment, a shell had landed in the powder magazine, but the shell failed to explode. Major Armistead quickly ordered the powder to be moved to a safer location. The British landed a small force on shore to try and pull some of Maj. Gen. Smith’s men away from the harbor opening, but the British force was unable to fool Maj. Gen. Smith. The British ships moved in closer and the Americans were finally able to open their artillery.

By dawn, the storm had passed and the British bombardment came to an end shortly afterward. They had fired over 1,500 rounds at Fort McHenry with no success. As the defenders of Fort McHenry took down the tattered storm flag and raised the garrison flag that was used for reveille, a portion of the British land force fired at the flag.

The American flag which was seen by Francis Scott Key.

The American flag which was seen by Francis Scott Key.

By sunrise, Francis Scott Key anxiously waited for the fog to lift, so he could see which flag now flew over Fort McHenry. With much relief, he saw the American flag flying over Fort McHenry. Key became inspired by the site, and would write the poem “Defiance of Ft. McHenry” that would become our National Anthem on March 3, 1931. The poem was based upon the British song “To Anacreon in Heaven.”

With Fort McHenry still in American possession, and Colonel Brooke falling back from near Baltimore, Vice Admiral Cochrane ordered his ships back. He was running low on ammunition and to retry to take the city by force would not prove anything. During the battle of Fort McHenry, the Americans had four killed and twenty-four wounded. The British had one man wounded that was on the vessel which took a hit from Fort McHenry’s artillery.

After the American victories at the battle of Plattsburgh, Baltimore and New Orleans, the War of 1812 officially came to an end by the signing of the Treaty of Ghent on December 24, 1814. The U.S approved the treaty on February 16, 1815, and by February 18, the War of 1812 was over.

Resources:
Gleig, George Robert (1827). The Campaigns of the British Army at Washington and New Orleans, 1814-1815. London: J. Murray,
Herrick, Carole. August 24, 1814 Washington in Flames. Falls Church, VA: Higher Education Publishing, 2005.
Lord, Walter. The Dawn’s Early Light. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1972.
Muller, Charles C. The Darkest Day. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2003.
Pitch, Anthony S. The Burning of Washington. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1998.
Vogel, Steve. Through the Perilous Flight Six Weeks that Saved a Nation. New York: Random House, 2013.

Give a Licoln and Help Complete the Monterey Pass Battlefield Museum

Please consider donating to the Monterey Pass Battlefield Park. We are in process of raising $3,500 to help pay for the interpretive panels that will go into our museum. Make you donation payable to the Friends of the Monterey Pass Battlefield, Inc. 13013 Welty Road, Waynesboro, PA 17268. We thank you for you help in helping us complete our museum.cropped-lincoln_campaign.jpg

A Timeline of Events in Maryland & Pennsylvania 1863

During the 150 Commemoration of the Invasion of Pennsylvania, I had researched a more in depth day by day timeline of events in Maryland and Pennsylvania. These day by day events were very popular with the supporters of the Friends of the Monterey Pass Battlefield, Inc. So, a year later, I decided to include this timeline on my blog to share with my followers. The information was taken from many, many resources.

June 15, 1863

The Confederate Army begins its invasion, crossing the Potomac River near Williamsport, Maryland. Lincoln calls for militia to serve during the invasion of the Confederate army.

June 16, 1863

Observations at Washington Monument located near Turner’s Gap watch Confederate wagons moving up and down the Cumberland Valley.

June 18, 1863

Union Major General Joseph Hooker requested that a signal station be built at Crampton’s Gap on South Mountain, as well as requesting cavalry support from Harper’s Ferry to seize all mountain gaps from Maryland Heights to Boonsboro. General Robert C. Schenck fulfills Hooker’s request.

June 19, 1863

General Hooker ordered General Samuel P. Heintzelman, who was at Poolesville, to help General Schenck seize the mountain gaps on South Mountain. General Heintzelman’s force consisted of 1,600 infantry, one battery of artillery and five troops of cavalry.

June 21, 1863

A portion of the 8th New York State National Guard moves into Chambersburg.

June 22, 1863

The 8th and portion of the 71st Regiments, New York S.N.G. were ordered to fall back toward Scotland in the face of the advancing Confederate army. By evening, they were ordered to retire to Carlisle by train.

A skirmish erupted at Monterey Pass when Company D, 14th Virginia Cavalry attacked portions of Union cavalry under the command of Captain Robert Bell, Captain Samuel Randall, and several members of the Gettysburg Home Guard. The Confederate skirmishers scoured the woods on foot along the Emmitsburg and Waynesboro Turnpike, forcing the militia to retreat toward Fairfield, using Maria Furnace Road, where the chase ended at dusk.

Also at Greencastle, a sharp skirmish was fought in which 1st New York Cavalryman, Corporal William Rihl was killed. He was considered the first Union soldier to be killed on Pennsylvania soil during the Pennsylvania Campaign. Two of the three divisions of General Richard Ewell’s Corps (General Edward Johnson and General Robert Rodes) marched over the Mason Dixon Line and encamped near Greencastle. General Albert Jenkins’ cavalry led the way.

June 23, 1863

Members of the 14th Virginia Cavalry captured several horses in the Cashtown area. By 2:00 pm in the afternoon, this detachment headed to Caledonia Iron Works. They were pursuing a small detachment of Union troops. Roughly two miles past Caledonia, the detachment of Confederate cavalry saw that the Federal troops had blockaded the road with minor skirmishing occurring.

Upon hearing rumors of a large Confederate force headed to Waynesboro, civilians begin to flee. The road leading to Monterey Pass is blocked by the refugees. Several Waynesboro citizens are forced to stay behind. By afternoon, Waynesboro is occupied by Confederate General Jubal Early’s Division.

General George Steuart’s Brigade is ordered to McConnellsburg to guard the Confederate left flank. General Albert Jenkins begins his movements to Shippensburg. Advancements of Confederate soldiers occupy Chambersburg, while the two divisions of Ewell’s Corps are located near Greencastle.

New York S.N.G. and Pennsylvania Militia units are still working on the defenses of Harrisburg. The 8th and portions of the 71st New York S.N.G. are at Carlisle, keeping Jenkins’ cavalry in check and buying time for Harrisburg to prepare the defenses.

In Maryland, General William French was in charge of the South Mountain operations as Union scouts were overlooking and watching the Cumberland Valley and Pleasant Valley while the Confederate Army concentrate in Maryland and Pennsylvania.

June 24, 1863

Still in Virginia, Union General Joseph Hooker and the Army of the Potomac is moving toward the Potomac River and by night fall is preparing to cross at Edward’s Ferry.

Confederate General Richard Ewell Corps enters into Chambersburg. Rachel Cormany writes “At 10 A.M. the infantry commenced to come & for 3 hours they just marched on as fast as they could. It is supposed that about 15,000 have already passed through, & there are still more coming. Ewel’s brigade has pas. I do not know what others. Longstreet & Hill are expected this way too. It is thought by many that a desperate battle will be fought at Harisburg. This P.M. the Rebs are plundering the stores. Some of our merchants will be almost if not entirely ruined.”

General Jubal Early and his division march out of Waynesboro to Black Gap. Confederate foraging wagons will run from Chambersburg to Winchester offloading supplies that are taken from Pennsylvania.

Confederate General Albert Jenkins is still moving toward Harrisburg. The New York S.N.G. and home guards were placed on the road leading into Carlisle. Colonel Trafford (71st NYSNG) ordered the men to dig rifle pits and entrenchments and prepare to the worst. At sunset, the NYSNG slept on their arms that night.

June 25, 1863

Confederate General Albert Jenkins’ Brigade marched though Shippensburg as they moved to Carlisle. National Guard General Knipe issued orders for the National Guardsmen to move forward and take possession of a ridgeline known as Rocky Ridge, near Carlisle to hold Jenkins in place. Two guns of Miller’s PA Battery were placed in the road, masked by trees. The 8th New York S.N.G. had positioned themselves at Walnut Bottom Road. As daylight gave to darkness, orders were issued for the militia force of New Yorkers and Pennsylvanians to withdraw and retreat toward Kingston, twelve miles from Harrisburg.

There is also a skirmish at McConnellsburg.

The 11th, 1st and 3rd Corps of the Army of the Potomac move across the Potomac River. The 11th Corps under the command of General Oliver O. Howard are the first to cross the Potomac doing so at 3:45am. He will encamp near Jefferson, Maryland. General John Reynolds ordered General Oliver O. Howard to send a brigade of infantry along with a battery of rifled guns to report to General Stahel and his cavalry at Crampton’s Gap.

Union General Julies Stahel reported to General Reynolds through a dispatch that the whole Confederate Army had passed through Hagerstown and was now in [Greencastle area] Pennsylvania. General Anderson’s Division of General A.P. Hill Corps had passed through Boonsboro around 6am.

Following behind is the 1st Corps and they will encamp near Poolesville/Barnesville. The 3rd Corps will cross the Potomac River north of Edwards Ferry near the mouth of the Monocacy River and march toward Jefferson, Maryland and encamp.

June 26, 1863

At 1am, the 8th and 71st New York S.N.G. encamped in the woods near Kingston during a rainstorm. Many of the men were without blankets and other items as they were sent back on the train to Harrisburg. They were still holding Jenkins’ Confederate Cavalry Brigade in check and buying time for the defenses of Harrisburg.

General A.P. Hill’s Corps is at Chambersburg. General George Pickett is bringing up the rear of General James Longstreet Corps and encamped near Greencastle. General Early’s Division burns the Iron Works of Thaddeus Stevens located at the western base of South Mountain near Cashtown Gap. As his division traveled through the South Mountain pass of Cashtown on June 26th, local citizens shot a Confederate soldier. General Early became outraged by this act and ordered the bushwhackers to be hunted down. He even threatened to burn the town of Cashtown in order to bring justice for the shooting of one of his men. Brigadier General John B. Gordon’s brigade of 2,800 men advanced through the town of Gettysburg where they repulsed a detachment of the 26th Pennsylvania Militia at Rock Creek.

Union General Stahel’s deployment was stretched all across South Mountain. He had one brigade and a section of artillery posted at Crampton’s Gap as well as a brigade and two sections of artillery from General Howard’s Corps. Stahel had one regiment at Turner’s Gap and one brigade and two sections of artillery at Middletown.

The 2nd Corps, 3rd Corps, 5th Corps and the 12th Corps of the Union Army of the Potomac cross the Potomac River and is now fully established on Maryland soil.

General Oliver O. Howard’s 11th Corps began to occupy the mountain gaps along South Mountain. General Howard posted one brigade at Crampton’s Gap, one at Turner’s Gap, another brigade on the road to Burkittsville and the final brigade on the Hagerstown Road. During the evening General Howard sent a dispatch to General Reynolds that stated that no Confederate force was reported to have been seen at Crampton’s Gap. General John Reynolds led his 1st Corps to Jefferson, Maryland.

June 27, 1863

Confederate General Albert Jenkins’ Brigade moved on to Carlisle. Skirmishing broke out with New York S.N.G. when they neared the town of Carlisle. General Knipe’s New York S.N.G. Brigade was in danger of being out flanked by the Confederate force, was ordered to fall back to Oyster Point. Arriving there, members of the 71st and 8th New York S.N.G. regiments were greeted by the 11th and 23rd New York S.N.G. regiments who were bivouacked there.

Portions of the 7th New York S.N.G. are protecting Baltimore at Fort Federal Hill and Fort McHenry by picketing the roads leading to the city.

Confederate General AP Hill moves his corps near Fayettville, while General James Longstreet moves to Chambersburg. General George Pickett’s Division arrived in Chambersburg and began guarding the wagon train and tearing up the vital Cumberland Railroad in Scotland and Chambersburg.

The Army of the Potomac is now fully concentrated in Maryland. 1st Corps marches to Middletown and South Mountain, the 2nd Corps marched to Knoxville and the 3rd Corps marches to Middletown. General Birnery was ordered by General Reynolds to send one infantry brigade and a battery of rifled guns to Crampton’s Gap to relieve the forces of General Howard once he arrived in the neighborhood of Jefferson and Burkittsville. While General Howard’s men at Crampton’s Gap were waiting to be relieved, Colonel William D. Mann commanding the 7th Michigan Cavalry occupied Turner’s Gap and sent patrols throughout the valley toward Hagerstown.

The 5th Corps marches toward Frederick, the 6th Corps marches across the Potomac River to near Poolesville and the 12th Corps marches toward Pleasant Valley covering the western base of South Mountain to the eastern base of Elk Ridge.

A portion of General Joshua Copeland’s Brigade of Michigan Cavalry (5th and 6th regiments) was ordered toward Emmitsburg encamping just south at the old tollgate and St. Joseph’s Valley.

June 28, 1863

Confederate General Jeb Stuart enters Rockville and then to Cooksville where his division captures 150 wagons loaded with supplies.

Moving from Boonsoboro to Waynesboro, a detachment of Cole’s Cavalry, Company C will move toward Monterey Pass. Upon descending Monterey Pass nearing Fountaindale, they spotted a 25 man detail of Confederate artillery soldiers foraging and taking horses at a nearby church. The Skirmish of Fountaindale will ensue resulting in most if not all of the Confederate soldiers to be taken prisoner. From Fountaindale, the detachment of Cole’s Cavalry, Company C will then move to Emmitsburg, Maryland.

Upon General Joseph Hooker’s resignation, General George Meade is appointed commander of the Army of the Potomac. He orders all of his army corps to concentrate at Frederick. The 6th corps will encamp at Hyatstown, while the rest of the Army of the Potomac moves onward to Frederick City.

The 71st New York S.N.G. was ordered by Colonel Trafford to advance and deploy into battle lines to meet the Confederate troops at Oyster Point, near Harrisburg. The 8th New York and 11th New York S.N.G. was ordered to fall back to Fort Washington. As the 71st New York S.N.G. deployed, Confederate General Jenkins’ artillery began to fire. Colonel Trafford sent out four companies to picket under fire. The remaining six companies were ordered to fall back to the rifle pits as the Confederate artillery was shelling the woods. The 71st New York S.N.G. had one soldier wounded and were forced to remain in position for the night.

Confederate General John Gordon skirmish at Wrightsville, Pa. General Jubal Early occupies York, PA.

General Robert E. Lee receives word from General Longstreet’s scout that General George Meade is commanding the Army of the Potomac and Lee issues orders for movements and the concentration of his army at Gettysburg. It will take several days for this to be completed.

June 29, 1863

The Skirmish of Westminster, Maryland and by evening Stuart’s cavalry encamped at Union Mills.

Also there are skirmishes at McConnellsburg

Confederate General Albert Jenkins is joined by some of General Ewell’s engineers to overlook fortifications of Harrisburg. During the day more skirmishing erupts at Oyster Point.

General AP Hill moves his corps to Cashtown and Longstreet’s Corps to Greenwood.

The 1st Corps begins marching to Emmitsburg, Maryland from Frederick at 4am in the morning and will arrive around 4-6pm, encamping at Saint Josephs. The 11th Corps taking a parallel road will encamp near Mount Saint Mary’s College, Emmitsburg. The 2nd Corps marches to Libertytown, the 3rd Corps to Taneytown, 5th Corps to Libertytown. The 6th Corps to New Windsor and the 12th Corps to Bruceville.

General John Buford and his cavalry division set out from Middletown, Maryland and head toward Waynesboro, PA. Skirting the town, Buford heads to Monterey Pass where he observes the dust being kicked up in the distance of Confederate soldiers marching. He will order his troopers to Fountaindale while he observes Confederate activity near Jacks Mountain. He will enter into Fairfield with his division and from there march to Emmitsburg.

General Wesley Merrit and his cavalry ordered to guard Harman’s Pass on the Catoctin Mountain and monitor Wolf’s Tavern Pass on South Mountain.

June 30, 1863

Confederate General JEB Stuart and Union General Judson Kilpatrick fight in the streets during the Battle of Hanover, Pennsylvania.

The 1st Corps moves out of Emmitsburg and encamps near Marsh Creek north of the Mason Dixon Line. The 11th Corps still at Emmitsburg while the 3rd Corps moves to Bridgeport along the Carroll and Frederick County Line. General David Birney’s Division will move from Bridgeport to Emmitsburg and encamp at St. Josephs. 2nd Corps moved to Uniontown. The 5th Corps to Union Mills. The 6th Corps to Manchester and the 12th Corps to Littlestown.

The bulk of the Confederate army is east of Chambersburg. General A.P. Hill’s Corps east of South Mountain, General James Longstreet’s Corps still west of South Mountain and General Richard Ewell’s command still north of Gettysburg. After receiving General Lee’s orders, General Albert Jenkins started to withdraw from Mechanicsburg during the morning, leaving behind a rearguard with orders to rip up the railroad tracks before withdrawing.

General Knipe’s New York S.N.G. Brigade was ordered to begin picketing the northern passes South Mountain near Carlisle. The 71st New York S.N.G. was ordered to Silver Creek, near Hampton. Arriving there, they would bivouac for the night. They heard the firing of guns and saw the flames coming from Carlisle. This was the fire started by the Confederates at the barracks.

July 1, 1863

General Meade issues orders for the Pipe Creek Line or Circular. However due to several events that would unfold at Gettysburg; the plan is not carried out mainly with the death of General John Reynolds. The 1st Corps moved to assist Buford’s Cavalrymen, the 11th Corps move out of Emmitsburg, the 3rd Corps moved into Emmitsburg and will arrive late in the evening at Gettysburg. The other Union Corps begin their movements toward Gettysburg from Union Mills, Manchester, Taneytown and Two Taverns.

AP Hill’s Corps begins the Battle of Gettysburg. Longstreet’s Corps moved east of South Mountain leaving Pickett’s men behind at Chambersburg. Ewell’s Corps is marching toward Gettysburg and will arrive during the evening. General Jenkins’ men were in the saddle moving toward Gettysburg arriving near 5pm.

General Knipe’s New York State National Guard Brigade began marching to the South Mountain pass called Mount Holly Gap. After a seven to eight mile march, many arrived near the banks of the Conegogeramit Creek where they bivouacked for the night. These Union soldiers of gray would witness the Carlisle Barracks being burned.

Confederate General Beverly Robertson’s NC Cavalry Brigade crosses the Potomac River at Williamsport and encamps at Greencastle. General Grumble Jones’ Cavalry Brigade crosses the Potomac and encamps near Greencastle. General John Imboden is also in Pennsylvania.

July 2, 1863

While the Battle of Gettysburg was underway, there is a sharp engagement at Hunterstown. There is also a small skirmish at Chambersburg. To the south at Greencastle, Union Captain Ulric Dahlgren captured a few Confederate couriers en-route to Gettysburg. General Wesley Merritt’s Cavalry Brigade moves to Emmitsburg, MD.

Confederate Generals Beverly Robertson and William Jones’ Brigades moved from Greencastle to Chambersburg. Confederate General John Imboden relieves General George Pickett just after midnight at Chambersburg. Pickett’s men assembled and begin to march to Gettysburg.

July 3, 1863

While the Battle of Gettysburg was underway, the Confederate brigades of Jones, Robertson and Imboden are in or near the Cashtown area. Union General Wesley Merritt and his cavalry is ordered to Gettysburg. The 6th US Cavalry is detached from Merritt’s brigade and is sent to Fairfield. The Battle of Fairfield erupts. The Confederate army is defeated at Gettysburg. Late in the night, General Robert E. Lee begins preparations for the long journey to Virginia.

July 4, 1863

General John Imboden is assigned to escort a wagon train carrying wounded through Cashtown Gap. The wagon trains of AP Hill and Longstreet are near Cashtown. Major John Harman’s reserve train is ordered to Fairfield and move through Monterey Pass along with General Richard Ewell’s wagon train and a small portion of AP Hill’s wagons will also move behind Ewell’s wagons.

A major thunderstorm hits the area, turning many roads into quagmires. General Judson Kilpatrick is ordered to find the Confederate wagon train that is moving through South Mountain and cut it in half via Emmitsburg. The end result, the Battle Monterey Pass erupts at night and continues through July 5th.

The Confederate army after moving back to a defensive position prepares to withdraw from Gettysburg and retreat through Monterey Pass.

The Army of the Potomac spent the day caring for the wounded, burying the dead, and reconnaissance of the Confederate army. General Ruger’s brigade of infantry moved forward and found that the Confederate positions were abandoned. Details of men were sent out, collecting arms, and burying the dead.

The New York National Guard division under General William Smith is ordered to picket the northern passes of South Mountain, preventing the Confederate army from retreating through them. The New Yorker National Guardsmen and Pennsylvania Militia will push through the mountain toward Cashtown.

July 5, 1863

The Battle of Monterey Pass comes to an end at 7am at Ringgold. The action (side action of Monterey Pass) erupts at Leitersburg. The skirmish of Emmitsburg and by afternoon, General JEB Stuart cuts though the Catoctin and South Mountains to Smithsburg. The engagement of Smithsburg occurs and Kilpatrick withdraws to Turner’s Gap.

General George Meade issued orders to his corps commanders for a withdraw from Gettysburg to pursue the Confederate army. All reports that came to General Meade stated that the Confederate army had already retreated from Gettysburg and was on the road heading in the direction of South Mountain. The 2nd Corps marches to Two Taverns. The 6th Corps is ordered to follow the rear of the retreating Confederate army. The remainder of the Union army is still at Gettysburg.

The Confederate army begins ascending the South Mountain range via Fairfield. General James Longstreet’s Corps will march on Jacks Mountain Road to Monterey Pass. General A.P. Hill will march through Fairfield Gap to Monterey Pass followed by General Richard Ewell’s Corps. Longstreet’s Corps and Hill’s Corps will encamp during the night at Monterey Pass and surrounding area.

The 7th New York S.N.G. was ordered to proceed to Frederick, Maryland without delay. They would be assigned to the Provisional Brigade, under the command of General Henry Briggs, part of General William French’s command.

The brigade of General Knipes who had rested near Laurel Forge marched to Pine Grove. With orders to move onto Newman’s Cut, the march proved difficult following the up and down movements of the mountain ridge. The recent rains had made the mountain roads a muddy mess. Several New York National Guardsmen encamped in the area of Bendersville.

July 6, 1863

The Confederate army continues to march into the Cumberland Valley via Monterey Pass. General James Longstreet’s Corps will assume the lead after bivouacking at Monterey Pass, followed by General AP Hill’s Corps and finally General Richard Ewell’s Corps. By evening, the Confederate army is encamped in or around the Mason Dixon Line via Waynesboro and Leitersburg.

General Judson Kilpatrick along with General John Buford attack Confederate cavalry at Hagerstown and Williamsport. The Battle of Hagerstown is devastating to Kilpatrick’s right wing. Buford and Kilpatrick fall back to Boonsboro.

General Knipe’s brigade of New York National Guardsmen is ordered to march to Cashtown Gap and encamps there for the night. General Knipe receives orders to march toward the Mason Dixon Line via Waynesboro.

The 7th New York State National Guard begins arriving at Monocacy Junction and will begin assuming picketing duties.

The Army of the Potomac begins it’s pursuit of the Confederate army.

The Second Corps bivouacked in the fields surrounding Two Taverns.

The First Corps is ordered to Emmitsburg and encamps at Marsh Creek.

The Third Corps is put into motion but halted a short way from Gettysburg, on their way to Emmitsburg. Some reports state that the Third Corps returned to their original position.

At 6:00 a.m. the Fifth Corps was again put into motion. Their destination was Emmitsburg, Maryland. Upon reaching Marsh Creek, three miles north of Emmitsburg at 12:00 p.m. they were forced to bivouac, having marched only three miles.

The Sixth Corps is marching behind the rearguard of the Confederate army. They are ordered to Emmitsburg, Maryland. General Thomas Neill’s Brigade is detached with McIntosh’s Brigade of cavalry. They will follow the rear of the Confederate infantry.

The Eleventh Corps marches to Emmitsburg, Maryland.

The Twelfth Corps began its line of march toward Bruceville. The leading elements arrived near Littlestown and encamped for there the night.

July 7, 1863

The New York S.N.G. troops marched to Mont Alto, where they encamped for the night. Another brigade of New York National Guardsmen are ordered from Harrisburg to Carlisle.

The 7th New York S.N.G. would fully concentrate at Frederick and assume picketing duties of the various roads leading to the city.

Army of the Potomac:

A party of signal officers under the charge of Captain William J. L. Nicodemus, arrived from Washington for the purpose of working in conjunction with the signal corps of the Union Army. Using the mountain passes of Turner’s and Crampton’s Gaps, a string of signal and observation posts were established.

Third Corps began its march to Emmitsburg.

At 4:00 a.m. the Twelfth Corps began it’s long trek that would take them to the banks of the Monocacy River, roughly thirty miles away.

At 5a.m., the Second Corps began their march to Taneytown, where they would encamp near the road that would take them directly to Frederick.

The Eleventh Corps marches to Middletown from Emmitsburg.

The First Corps marched into Emmitsburg, where they were met by the Sisters of Charity who shared their contents of food, that was contained in several wagons, with the men in blue.

The majority of the Sixth Corps marches over the Catoctin Mountain and dubbed it as “Sedgwick’s Pass”. Neill’s Brigade is in Waynesboro, PA.

The Confederate army is still marching toward Hagerstown.

July 8, 1863

The Battle of Boonsboro erupts. Singalists who arrived from Washington will occupy Washington Monument using the old ruins as the core of communications to the Union army including General John Buford who is fighting at Boonsboro. The Battle of Boonsboro buys time for the Confederate army to concentrate at Hagerstown.

By early evening, the New York National Guardsmen under the command of General William Smith enter Waynesboro, PA where they are met by General Thomas Neill’s brigade of infantry from the Sixth Corps.

General Yates’ Brigade of New York National Guardsmen enters Shippensburg and will continue their march toward Chambersburg.

Union General William French, who was in command of a force at Frederick received word that he was to pull most of his troops out and take command of the Union Third Corps since their commander General Daniel Sickles was wounded at Gettysburg. General William French turned over the city of Frederick to Colonel Marshall Lefferts, commanding the 7th New York S.N.G.

The First Corps had penetrated into the Middletown Valley, passing through the small towns of Bellsville and Harmony. The Second Corps took up their line of march on the road that led directly to Frederick. The Third Corps resumed their line of march toward Frederick. The Fifth Corps broke camp and began its march to High Knob Pass. The Sixth Corps marched to Middletown. The Eleventh Corps occupied Turner’s Gap. The Twelth Corps marched to Jefferson and Burkettsville, via Middletown.

July 9, 1863

The New York National Guard under General William Smith who are in Waynesboro spend the day picketing the roads leading into Waynesboro. General Dana’s Division of New York National Guard and Pennsylvania Militia are located around the Shippensburg/Greenville areas. The 7th New York National Guard remains in control of Frederick City.

General George Meade orders the Army of the Potomac to cross South Mountain and occupy Pleasant and Cumberland Valleys. The First, Sixth and Eleventh Corps would march through Turner’s Gap. The Third and Fifth Corps would march through Fox’s Gap. The Second and Twelfth Corps would march through Crampton’s Gap. That evening Meade would establish his headquarters near the Devil’s Backbone, located along the Antietam Creek.

Confederate General JEB Stuart positioned himself east of Funkstown, and was attacked early in the evening by Union General John Buford’s Union Cavalry. General Stuart was pushed back toward Funkstown. This would set the stage for the Second Battle of Funkstown.

The Confederate army is working on a series of entrenchments at Hagerstown and Williamsport.

July 10, 1863

Portions of General William Smith’s New York National Guard Division prepared to move out of Waynesboro. They ford the Antietam Creek along the Leitersburg Turnpike since the Confederate rear guard burned the bridge that spanned the creek. From there they would march toward Leitersburg, Maryland, where they would operate for several days.

The Army of the Potomac will begin to close in on the Confederate army. The First Corps marched toward Beaver Creek and Wagner’s Crossroads. The Second Battle of Funkstown occurs. Stuart is buying the Confederate army more time to work on their defensive lines. The Third Corps marched toward the Antietam Creek began. The soldiers passed through Keedysville, and halted near General Meade’s headquarters near the Devil’s Backbone. The Fifth Corps broke camp early in the morning and marched toward Boonsboro. From there they proceeded to Jones’ Crossroads and eventually encamped near Delaware Mills, arriving there around 3:00 p.m.

The Sixth Corps marched toward Funkstown, taking position beyond Beaver Creek, about four miles west of Boonsboro and three miles south of Hagerstown. General Neill’s expeditions from a point on Franklin’s Cliff, South Mountain Range, near Leitersburg, discovered the numbers and position of the enemy in and around Hagerstown. The Eleventh Corps moves to Beaver Creek. The Twelfth Corps marched from Rohrersville to Bakersville via Keedysville,

July 11, 1863

The First Corps remained stationary near Beaver Creek. The Second Corps formed a battle line near Saint James College. The Third Corps support the Fifth Corps. The Sixth Corps marched toward Funkstown taking position near Beaver Creek. The Eleventh Corps marched toward Beaver Creek near Funkstown. The Twelfth Corps marched toward the positions of the Second Corps. A small group of Federal soldiers led by Captain William G. McCreary went to Black Rock, a bare and elevated rock on the South Mountain Range between Boonsboro and Smithsburg.

The New York National Guard movements on this day. General Charles Yates Second New York State National Guard Brigade marched into Chambersburg. At Frederick, MD, the 7th New York State National Guard is relieved of command as Inspector General Edmund Schriver arrived from Washington. Smith’s Division moves to Cavetown.

July 12, 1863

Major General William Smith’s Division of New York National Guard moves toward Smithsburg and Cavetown. The First Corps moved onto the heights of Funkstown, where it deployed a line of battle. The Second Corps moved about three-quarters of a mile near St. James. The Third Corps remained in the same position. The Sixth Corps take Funkstown. The Eleventh Corps pushed ahead of the First Corps near Funkstown. The Twelfth Corps realigns their position. By days end, the Army of the Potomac was west of the Antietam Creek. Cavetown was reached by the New York National Guardsmen and the rest of Smith’s Division. General George Meade held a council of war during the night. Most of his Corps commanders voted NO for an all out assault.

July 13, 1863

The Army of the Potomac spent much of the day realigning their position. Their lines ran from Funkstown to Jones’ Cross Roads. The Confederate positions ran from near Hagerstown to Downsville. Smith’s Division of New York National Guards marches toward Boonsboro.

July 14, 1863

The Pennsylvania Campaign (2nd Maryland Campaign) is coming to a close in Maryland. During the early morning, the Confederate infantry corps of Generals Longstreet and Hill began crossing the Potomac River into Falling Waters. The Battle of Falling Waters on the Maryland shore of the Potomac River breaks out when Union cavalry engage the rear of the Confederate army. General Ewell’s Corps will ford the Potomac at Williamsport.

Portions of the Union army move toward Williamsport to find that Lee has escaped. Union General George Meade issued marching orders to his corps commanders to fall back toward Pleasant Valley where the Union army will cross the Potomac River a few days later. By the end of the day all Union signal operations and observation stations are discontinued.

General William Smith’s Division of the New York National Guard marches to Beaver Creek where they encamp for the night. General Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana’s Division of Militia and National Guardsmen marches from Chambersburg toward Greencastle. The 7th New York National Guard is preparing to leave Maryland to put down the New York Riots. ALL New York National Guardsmen will receive orders to march onward to Monocacy Junction during the night.

July 15, 1863

The New York National Guardsmen were ordered back to New York due to the riots that had broken out. The Army of the Potomac will begin moving toward South Mountain and Pleasant Valley. The First Corps was ordered toward Crampton’s Gap, encamping at Rohersville in Pleasant Valley for the night. The Second Corps was ordered to Sandy Hook. Many of the men marched from Williamsport, passing through Downsville to Sharpsburg, and encamped near Harper’s Ferry that night along the C&O Canal. The Third Corps marched from Williamsport to Sharpsburg. After passing through Sharpsburg, the Third Corps crossed over what had become Burnside’s Bridge, marching about a half of a mile and were bivouacked at 1:00 p.m. The Sixth Corps was ordered back to Boonsboro where they would encamp for the night. The Eleventh Corps was ordered to move to Funkstown, cross Turner’s Gap, and march to Middletown where they would encamp. The Twelfth Corps marched through Downsville, Bakersville, and Sharpsburg. Upon reaching the Antietam Iron Works the Twelfth Corps took River Road toward Harper’s Ferry, encamping on the high grounds in Pleasant Valley near Sandy Hook.

July 16, 1863

The Army of the Potomac is on the move. The First Corps was ordered to Berlin, Maryland. The Second Corps continued its line of march to Sandy Hook where in Pleasant Valley it received new uniforms and rations. The Third Corps marched into Pleasant Valley taking position along the western base of South Mountain at Brownsville, Maryland. The Sixth Corps marched through South Mountain at Turner’s Gap. Arriving at Middletown, it began to march toward Berlin, MD. The Eleventh Corps would march toward Jefferson from Middletown and by afternoon they would reach Berlin, MD. The Twelfth Corps continued its line of march to Sandy Hook where it would receive new uniforms and rations.

July 17, 1863

The Army of the Potomac remains idle on the northern side of the Potomac River near Pleasant Valley and Harper’s Ferry. Late in the day, the Third Corps marched to Harper’s Ferry, crossing the Potomac River on pontoons into Virginia. From there they marched another five miles before encamping for the night.

July 18, 1863

The Army of the Potomac closes in on the Potomac River; the First Corps will cross into Virginia at Berlin (Brunswick), MD. The Second Corps also crosses the Potomac River into Virginia via Sandy Hook, MD. The Third Corps continue its line of march toward Hillsborough, VA.

July 19-25, 1863

The Sixth, Eleventh and Twelfth Corps began crossing the Potomac River into Virginia. By the end of the day, the entire Army of the Potomac is in Virginia. During Meade’s pursuit on July 23rd, a pitched battle is fought at Manassas Gap, but the Confederate army gets away. Most of the Union army will march to Front Royal and Warrenton, Virginia. By July 25th, the Pennsylvania Campaign for the most part is over and the Confederate army is beyond reach of the Union army. The Confederate army will regroup in Luray Valley.